• HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks the body’s immune system. If HIV is left untreated, it can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection. It happens when the body's immune system is damaged because of the virus
  • HIV person is progressed to develop AIDS if the number of CD4 cells falls below 200 cells/mm3
  • In a healthy person CD4 count ranges from 500 - 1600 cells/mm3
  • The first case of HIV infection in the Philippines was reported in the year 1984
  • A total of 81,789 confirmed HIV cases were reported to the HIV/AIDS & ART Registry of the Philippines
  • 94% (76,804) of those diagnosed were male and 6% (4,974) were female
  • More than half (51%, 41,490) were 25-34 years old while 23,460 (29%) were youth, i.e., 15-24 years old
  • The median age was 28 years old (age range: 1 month - 82 years)
  • 13% (10,690) of the reported cases experienced the clinical manifestations of advanced infection
HIV/AIDS Trends in Philippines
Number of HIV cases and advanced infections reported from Jan 1984 - Nov 2020
Number of newly diagnosed cases in Philippines
Nearly, there were 620 confirmed HIV-positive individuals reported to the HIV/AIDS & ART Registry of the Philippines (HARP) in November 2020
Number of newly diagnosed cases per month, 2018-2020
Mode of transmission in Philippines
The primary mode of transmission in Philippines is predominant among:
  • Males who have sex with males [MSM] - 86%
  • Sexual contact among male –female – 10%
  • From 1984 to 2006, the predominant MOT was male-female sex and in 2007 HIV cases were reported among MSM
  • The transmission through sharing of infected needles was less than one percent from 1984 – 2004
  • Cases among people who inject drugs (PWID) increased in 2010
Cumulative number of people diagnosed per year by MOT, Jan 1984 – Nov 2020
Mode of transmission in Philippines
  • Mode of transmission among children and adolescents, Jan 1984 – Nov 2020
  • Mode of transmission in youth 15 -24 years old, Jan 1984 – Nov 2020
Females diagnosed with HIV in Philippines
  • The number of females diagnosed with HIV from past ten years (2011 -2020) has been increasing
  • Data shows that From January to November 2020, 375 females were diagnosed with HIV, which was three times higher compared with cases reported in 2011 (139)
  • All female cases which were reported since 1984 were in the reproductive age group (15-49 years old) at the time of testing
Number of females diagnosed per year, Jan 1984 - Nov 2020
Number of newly diagnosed cases in Philippines
In November 2020, there were 563 people with HIV who were initiated on anti-retroviral therapy
Number of art initiation per month 2018- 2020
90/90/90 Target
  • 90 Percent of people who are living with HIV know their status
  • 90 Percent of people living with HIV who know their status are receiving treatment
  • 90 Percent of people on treatment have suppressed viral loads
Spread of the virus
  • Vaginal sex:
    • Either partner can get HIV during vaginal sex
    • Women with HIV is mostly through vaginal sex
    • Men can also effected with HIV during vaginal sex
    • The risk of vaginal sex is less to get HIV
  • Anal sex:
    • It is the highest risk of transmitting HIV
  • Sharing needles, syringes, injecting drugs:
    • Sharing needles, syringes, and other injection equipment can carry HIV from person who is infected with HIV
    • People who inject drugs are at risk for HIV because of unprotected sexual behavior
  • Blood transfusion:
    • People are at high risk of transmitting HIV through blood transfusions, blood products, or organ and tissue transplants
  • From mother to baby:
    • The transmission of virus from mother to baby is called perinatal transmission or mother-to-child transmission
    • HIV can be transmitted to baby during pregnancy, delivery, breast feeding
    • If pregnant woman takes HIV medicines daily as prescribed then the chance of transmitting HIV to baby can be less than 1%
HIV is not spread through
Not transmitted
Sharing dishes
Closed mouth kissing
Shaking hands
Sharing toilets
Mosquitoes or
other insects
Saliva, tears
Risk factors
People who have unprotected anal or vaginal sex
People who are infected with sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as syphilis, herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhea and bacterial vaginosis
People who share contaminated needles, syringes and other injecting equipment
People who receive unsafe injections, blood transfusions, tissue transplantation
People who experience unexpected needle stick injuries
Stages of HIV
Acute HIV infection
  • It is earliest stage of HIV infection
  • It is also known as primary HIV infection
  • In this phase people have large amount of HIV in their blood
  • Antigen/antibody tests or nucleic acid tests is used to diagnose acute infection
  • This stage is also called asymptomatic HIV infection or clinical latency
  • No signs or symptoms are seen in people with HIV
  • Viral replication takes place at this stage and immune response against the virus is effective
  • People can transmit HIV in this phase
  • At the end of this stage the viral load tends to persist and CD4 cell count declines
Chronic HIV infection
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  • The most severe phase of HIV infection
  • In this phase people’s immune system is damaged and opportunistic infections begin to develop
  • CD4+ T-cell count less than 200/µL is also used as a measure to diagnose AIDS
  • People with AIDS have high viral load
  • People with AIDS can survive only for three years, if they are not taking any proper medicines
After being infected with HIV, people experience flu-like symptoms within
2 to 4 weeks where they last for few days or several weeks
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Rash
  • Night Sweats
  • Muscle ache
  • Sore throat
  • Fatigue
  • Swollen lymph nodes
What are the symptoms based on the stages of HIV infection?
Acute HIV infection
  • Symptoms appear within 2 to 6 weeks
  • They last for one or two weeks
  • Symptoms include: Fever, Fatigue, Sore throat, Aching muscles, Swollen lymph nodes, Rash
  • Individuals in this phase start to feel better and no symptoms were observed. Hence this phase is also known as asymptomatic stage
Chronic HIV infection
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • Symptoms include: Fever for more than 10 days, Tiredness, Shortness of breath, Diarrhea, Weight loss, Bleeding, Swollen lymph nodes
How to identify HIV rash?
HIV rash can be itchy, red or purple, or painful. It is a symptom observed in early or later stages of HIV infection
Difference between HIV 1 and HIV 2
  • There are two main different types of HIV. They are HIV 1 & HIV 2
  • HIV-1 infection causes AIDS worldwide, but in West Africa, HIV-2 is prevalent. Most patients infected with HIV-2 do not progress to AIDS. HIV-2 infection protects against subsequent HIV-1 infection and slows the rate of HIV-1 disease progression
What are the symptoms observed in HIV women?
Symptoms are same for both men and women. But women experience different problems from men:
  • Disturbances in menstrual cycle
  • High risk of cervical cancer
  • A higher risk of osteoporosis
  • Repeated vaginal infections
  • Pain in lower belly
HIV test helps to know the status of HIV
Who should get tested:
  • Individuals above 13 years of age
  • Individuals who are at risk of HIV infection
  • Individuals who had sex with HIV infected person
  • Individuals who had sex with more than one partner
  • Individuals who had injected drugs, shared contaminated needles and syringes
  • Individuals who had been treated for other sexually transmitted diseases
What are the types of HIV test
Three types of test are available:
  • 1. Nucleic acid test
  • 2. Antigen/Antibody test
  • 3. Antibody test
Nucleic acid test:
  • In this test blood is drawn from a vein
  • This test helps to diagnose the HIV positive person
  • This test also helps to know the amount of viral load present in the blood
  • The results of this test may take for several days
Antigen/Antibody test:
  • This test involves drawing blood from a vein
  • Antigens: They are the foreign substances which activate the immune system
  • Antibodies: They are produced by immune system when exposed to viruses
  • The results may take for 30 minutes or less
Antibody test:
  • This test helps to estimate amount of antibodies to HIV in blood
  • The results may take for 30 minutes or less
HIV testing options in Philippines
Facility-based testing
  • Both public and private health facilities provide HIV testing and counselling performed by health care professionals
  • This test provides the advantage of faster medical-decision making from health professionals
  • In this test person has to collect his or her own specimen and then performs an HIV test using self-test kits
  • HIV self-test kits are not available in the Philippines
Community-based screening:
These organisations offer HIV testing and screening, performed by trained volunteers or health workers
Mental Health of HIV person
How HIV effects a person life negatively?
  • Individuals face stigma and discrimination
  • Mental health of well being is disturbed
  • Violation of human rights may occur
  • Isolated by family members
What can be done to avoid HIV stigma?
  • Provide awareness on the facts and myths of HIV
  • Emphasise in understanding the rights of people living with HIV
  • Protect anti-discrimination laws
  • Encourage to provide treatment access to all people who live with HIV
Can HIV effect mental health of a person?
  • Yes. HIV can be the major source of stress. It can have effect on well being of an individual
  • HIV can effect the nervous system and can lead to behavioural change
What is the meaning of self/internalised stigma?
  • This is when a person diagnosed with HIV feels like he/she is isolated, discriminated or judged badly for their HIV status then they take negative ideas and start to apply to themselves
Is it safe to touch HIV person?
  • It is safe to touch an HIV person because it is not transmitted through touching, hugging or shaking hands